A family story submitted by reader, William Crawford...

by William Adna Crawford 


My father (Adna Romulus CRAWFORD, born and raised in Ironton OH 1903-1972) was a career Naval Officer and our family spent many years going from one duty station to another.  I met only a few of my parent’s family members, namely, one grandfather and several aunts, and that was when we made stops between duty stations.  

I never heard my father (or my mother) talk very much about their parents or their siblings and consequently, I did not know much about my family history. 

In March of 1999, I took a genealogy course through the Elderhostel Program and the Family History Center at BYU in Provo UT.  In my research, I discovered several facts about my great-grandparents, on my daddy’s side, that woven together present an interesting story that I would like to share with you. 

The Facts:

1.      My g-grandfather (Henry CRAWFORD of Aid OH) married my g-grandmother (Margaret DAVISSON) on 23 Dec 1858 in Lawrence County, OH. 

2.      Exactly one year later, on 23 Dec 1859, a daughter (Elva) was born. 

3.      A terrible war started in 1861 and on 18 Oct 1861, Henry enlisted in the 9th West Virginia Infantry. 

4.      A Confederate force attacked Henry’s unit on 10 Nov 1861 in which all but 4 men were either killed, wounded or captured.  Henry was one of the ones captured.

5.      Meanwhile, back home, Margaret was giving birth, on 8 Apr 1862, to her second child (William Henry CRAWFORD) while caring for Elva. 

6.      On 2 Jun 1862, Henry was exchanged and allowed to return to his unit. 

NOTE from William A. Crawford:  "got Henry's date of enlistment from his pension papers and also from his Certificate of Discharge, on file with the Lawrence County Recorder Index to Military Discharges [Vol 1-2] 1861-1919.
He was captured on 10 November 1861 in the "affair at Guyandotte" VA (WV now) and sent to Richmond and finally to Salisbury NC. He was exchanged (or paroled, I don't know which) on 2 June 1862 and went back to his unit, the 9th WV Infantry. Henry is also listed in "The Salisbury Prison - A Case Study of Confederate Military Prisons 1861-1865" revised and enlarged by Louis Brown Ref 973.772 Br.

I know all this happened before the Regiment was formed.....The Compendium of the War of the Rebellion says the 9th was "....organized at Guyandotte November 28, 1861....." so I suspect that training started prior to the official formation of the regiment."

My Suppositions: 

Now, understand that I was never told anything about this sequence of events, so I am reading “between the lines”, so to speak.   

Here is a man, Henry, pretty much a newly-wed, with a small baby at home, and a wife (Margaret) who is pregnant with a second child, who enlists in the army to fight a war to save his country.   

Henry is in the army for just 23 days (!!!!), when his unit is attacked and he ends up as a Prisoner of War.   

Several months later, Margaret gives birth to their second child, probably not knowing if Henry is dead or alive.  

Henry, languishing in a POW camp, doesn’t know that he is the father of a brand new son.   

Can you imagine the emotions of these two people when Henry finally does come home and sees his wife, daughter and a new son?   


Final Notes:

After the war, Henry and Margaret had 7 more children while living and working in Aid Township.  Henry lived to be 85 years old and died in 1915.  Henry and his wife, Margaret, along with 2 infants, are buried in the Aid Cemetery, Lawrence County, Ohio. 

That second child (my grandfather) born when Henry was a POW, turned out to be William Henry CRAWFORD, a Lawrence County Auditor and the first Clerk of the Lawrence County Board of Elections.  He died in 1951 and is buried in the Woodlawn Cemetery in Ironton Ohio.


Sumbitted by Dawn Moorehead Street

My story is just bits and pieces.  I wish I had listened more closely to my
grandmother's stories when she was living. 

Her grandfather, Robert Silas White, was a Presbyterian singing teacher when
he married Elizabeth Ann Crowder on July 26, 1860 in Ripley, MS.  He and her
brothers joined the Confederate Army.  He was wounded early in the war and
"was paroled on a sick furlough and did not have to return to the war."  He
returned to Ripley, MS and they moved to Covington, TN.  According to the
petition for a widow's pension, he died in 1868.  They had three children: 
Martha Ann White Grigsby born June 14, 1861 in MS, Robert Luther White born
October 3, 1864 in TN, and Johnny D. born February 24, 1868 in TN.

The story in the family was that Elizabeth confronted a Union patrol when
they raided the family plantation.  They were going to take a pail used by
the family to draw water from the creek.  She created such a fuss that the
leader of the patrol kicked the bucket to her and left the imprint of the toe
of his boot in it.  She sold the family plantation and moved with her father
and family to Texas.  At one time, her sons wanted to go back to claim the
plantation in MS, but she burned all the deeds, legal papers, etc. because
she had sold the land to a relative and had used the money to move the family
and to raise her children.  She did not feel it would be right for them to
return and take it back.  Apparently, the land was left to her sons and she
had no legal right to sell it, as far as they were concerned.  She lived to
be 101 and died in San Angelo, TX. 

Wilson's Creek
by Joan Rose

Late-afternoon sunshine slanted across gently rolling hills, producing a jewel-like glow on the yellowing oak and bright red sumac leaves and putting a sparkle on the lazily flowing waters that wound through the park. This was Wilson's Creek, near Republic, Mo., ten miles southwest of Springfield. Because of the plethora of oak trees, that on this bright blue-sky day dotted the area with gold, the battle was known to Southerners as Oak Hills. Once the 1,750 acres had echoed to the sharp blasts of artillery, the staccato fire of muskets on attack and in defense, anguished screams and moans of dying men who had no concept that a pivotal battle in the early months of a long-to-be-drawn-out Civil War was playing out here. Today, 138 years later, the only traces of battle are an occasional display of ancient artillery and a few sun-faded signs explaining to hurry-through visitors what had happened in that field over there or on yon rise. It is a pastoral scene, carefully manicured by the National Park Service that cares lovingly for many battlefields of that era. It is visited by joggers, bikers and dog-walkers, those who know little and care less that the brief fighting here determined that Missouri would remain intact in the Union fold. The battle has been called a Confederate victory by referee-historians, yet the bold attack by Nathaniel Lyon who on that spot became first Union general to lose his life on the battlefield, actually saved the state for Missouri. Although it was the first major battle west of the Mississippi (and to remain one of the biggest and most important), as fighting went in that awful war it was not all that bloody. It lasted only a few hours, and only 2,539 men are known to have died - 1,317 for the Union, 1,222 for the Rebels. ONLY 2,539?! No bodies are buried on site today - all were removed as soon as possible to the national cemeteries in Springfield, which still are segregated, blue and gray.

What bothered me most as I drove the 4.9 mile one way loop road through the park was not so much thoughts of the dead and dying there, but why I had not visited the site as a teenager. In the school year 1939-1940, I was a junior in Springfield High School, studying American History in what passed then as an honors class. I vaguely remember some mention of "a big battle not far from here" and over the years I had heard quite a bit about Wilson's Creek, but in our class not one word was heard to suggest a "field trip" or a visit to the place. Our teacher did not encourage us to visit it. She did not mention that she herself had "walked" the battlefield. Not one student gave a report on such a major site, a turning point, in our backyard. That was the year that I became a Civil War buff, my enthusiasm fired by a first introduction to Bruce Catton's memorable historic accounts of people, places and events of that war. And of course that was the year I sat breathlessly through the "Gone with the Wind" saga, thrilling as much to the dynamic burning of Atlantic scenes as to the handsome swashbuckler Rhett Butler. I would have relished a trip to a real live battlefield where my imaginations could have run wild! And therein, of course, lies a major problem in the way American history is presented in U.S. public schools. It is shoved at bored students without a shred of imagination, without a dramatic spark to whet their appetites to learn and to hear more. What is in the text can be read in a few short minutes in preparation for class. Teachers dish out facts and dates and names without tying them together in memorable fashion, mostly watered down and conforming to politically correct terms, expecting them to be digested and regurgitated on demand at finals time and then packed away in a corner of the brain seldom called upon again. In my too brief teaching career, I had two classes of American history in high school, and I know how hungry my students were to relate to their backgrounds when their imaginations were tickled and how they could rise to the challenge to absorb, to think, to evaluate, to assess --- I could go on and on, but this is about Wilson's Creek, and not about the vagaries of the current education philosophies.

Suffice it to say, I don't think any child should be considered educated until he has been taken to "walk" a Civil War battlefield, to touch the ground where men died for a cause, right or wrong, understood or only glimpsed. I think it behooves every parent to make sure that his child is exposed to this experience and not leave it up to the schools to take him there. Wilson's Creek is an excellent starting place. It may not have the drama of Chattanooga, the grim desolation of Vicksburg, the horror of the Wilderness and Antietam, the immensity of Gettysburg - but for those who live in the wide central plains of America, it has the advantage of being accessible.

The park is open daily, from 8 a.m. to 7 p .m. except on Christmas and New Year's Day. On certain days, like Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Aug. 10 and Labor Day there are special programs. On summer weekends there may be living-history demonstrations at the Ray House, which was used as a Confederate hospital after the battle. Re-enactors show up on other scheduled dates. A small admission is charged, but a whole carload gets in free on Granny's Golden Eagle pass.. The driving route is well marked, and informative maps may be obtained at the well-equipped visitors' center, which also offers books and souvenirs for sale as well as shows videos and displays that enhance understanding of what took place there.

There also is a research library, open to only a few at time because of limited space and electronic equipment so that reservations are a must during busy season. Many not easily found volumes pertaining to the Civil War not only in Missouri but throughout the nation are on the shelves, along with many reference and roster volumes. No one else was there on this beautiful October Friday afternoon, and I had the computer and the helpful park ranger who runs the library all to myself. He answered a lot of questions for me, and I browsed the shelves and vowed to make another trip back, when I had more time, very soon. Finding out what happened at Wilson's Creek, once on the site, is not difficult. In only a few minutes everyone in the car can be knowledgeable about places and events, and eagerly look for Gibson's Mill, Pulaski Arkansas Battery site and Bloody Hill. A little homework, however, does not hurt, making it easier to comprehend the inevitable confrontation between the deposed state governor, Claiborne Jackson, Commander of the Missouri State Guard Gen. Sterling Price and Gens. Ben McCulloch and N. Bart Pierce on the Rebel side and General Lyon, who had been commander of the U.S. Arsenal in St. Louis when the war broke out.

So what did happen at Wilson's Creek, in this quiet pasture in the rolling foothills of the Ozarks? Let's go back to the situation as the Southern States were beginning to pull out of the Union. Many Missourians were of Southern extraction, and many owned slaves, but most tended to agree with Union sympathizers that the state should remain neutral. Not so the fiery Governor Jackson, however, who refused pointblank to send a requested four regiments to help put down the rebellion. Instead, he made plans for the state militia to seize the federal arsenal in St. Louis. Lyon, however, as arsenal commander, had the weapons removed secretly, and he gathered 7,000 men to march on the Governor's Camp Jackson and forced its surrender in May. He did not stop there. He marched his army up the Missouri River and captured Jefferson City, the state capital. Jackson would not give up, and his militia retreated to southwestern Missouri where he and General Price and their 5,000 militia men were joined by additional southern sympathizers from Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas - enough to field an army of 12,000 men. They decided to attack Lyon, who by now was headquartered in Springfield, only 75 miles away. Lyon got word of the attack and launched an attack of his own on their vanguard, at Dug Springs. He got the best of that skirmish, but he realized he was outnumbered, and he backtracked to Springfield, the Confederates on his tail.

On the night of Aug. 9 the Rebels were encamped near Wilson's Creek, where General McCulloch, now in command of the fighting forces, planned a surprise attack on Lyon. It began to rain, however, and McCulloch called off the march to await better conditions. Lyon, however, was sneaking up on the Rebels in his own surprise attack, and he was not to be deterred by a summer rain. He sent Col. Franz Sigel with 1200 men on a wide swing to the south to flank the Confederate right, and he himself planned to use his remaining 4,000 troops on a head-on attack from the north. It was a surprise, all right. Sigel quickly overran several outlying Rebel camps and his men fought their way to the top of a small rise which ever after was to be known as Bloody Hill. Waiting for them there was the withering fire from the Pulaski Arkansas Battery, which to be the real saviors of the fight on the Confederate side. While Sigel's men were pinned down, for five hours, the Rebel infantry formed a line on the south slope of the hill. When Sigel attempted to fight his way out, through the croplands of the Sharp farm, Rebel fire was so intense he and his men fled. Lyon and his men also had made it to Bloody Hill where the brave Union leader was wounded twice, finally fatally, leading a desperate charge. His next in command, Maj. Samuel Sturgis, realizing ammunition was running low, ordered his remaining troops back to Springfield.
        The fighting was over.

At Wilson's Creek, several sites are worth closer examination, either by stopping in conveniently placed car parks or by hiking clearly marked (and relatively easy) trails. There is Gibson's Mill, the northern end of the Confederate camps, where the state guard under Gen. James S. Rams met the first thrust of Lyon's attack and was forced back down the creek. And the historic Ray House, only structure of that time still standing besides the spring houses over the family source of water. It served as a Confederate headquarters and field hospital from which those inside could watch the fighting in the nearby cornfield from which Federal troops were driven back across the stream. Several small cannon stand as sentinels to mark the site of the Pulaski Battery, which held firm and fired continually during the battle. Small artillery pieces, shaded by colorful oak trees, also mark the two major sites in Sigel's position. On my visit a woman from Colorado watched her two small grandsons climb in, on and about the guns and asked me if I knew what had taken place there. I wanted to tell her, "Lady, look at that very comprehensive map you got at the park headquarters!" but I didn't. I am always appalled at folks who visit famous sites where brave and heroic deeds took place and have no concept of what they are looking at. Instead, however, I pointed to the fields, showing where Sigel had routed the Rebel cavalry and then had halted a few minutes to rest before pushing on in the face of the battering from the Pulaski artillery. I warmed up to my story. I love an audience. Sigel reformed his men and drew up a line of battle along the Wire Road. But then occurred one of those ironies of war, particularly prevalent in this most horrific war. It was a foggy morning, and visibility was not the best. Sigel's men sighted oncoming troops who appeared to be dressed in uniforms similar to those of the first Iowa Infantry, one of Lyon's Regiment. They weren't. They were Rebels, and they seized on the mistaken identity to attack and rout Sigel, probably the turning point in the battle. The Historic Overlook provides a good view - as good as any - of much of the battlefield. It had been in Union hands throughout, held by the 2nd Missouri Infantry to guard against a Confederate counterattack from that corner. And then there is Bloody Hill, where firing in repeated charges and countercharges was so heavy that gunsmoke mingled with fog remnants to obscure visibility, but not enough to hide the hideous sight of more than 1,700 men dead and dying on its gentle slopes. Not far away is the battery position of Capt. Henry Gibor's Confederates. Three times his men raced from there to attempt to storm Bloody Hill, and three times they were repulsed. On the fourth time, they made it to the crest, only to find that the Feds had gone.

The Rebels had won the battle - but they did not follow up. This was a failing of both Federal and Confederate troops throughout the war, until General Grant changed the tactics. Because the Rebels did not pursue the retreating Federals and overtake them, they lost their chance. They never did recapture Springfield, and they were unable to mount another serious threat to take control of the state in the early part of the war. . General Price fought a couple of battles, capturing the garrison at Lexington., but eventually was forced south into Arkansas and soundly defeated at the Battle of Pea Ridge in 1862. He returned with a larger army in 1864. He did a lot of damage, but was stomped at Westport and forced to retreat south again. 

Missouri remained - not safely but securely - in the Union.

If you would like to "discuss" this article, you may email the author at JRose10700@aol.com

by James L. Walker

This is a write up my friend, and one of the HOSTS in the American Civil War History Special Interest Group in the Genealogy Forum on AOL, James L. Walker did on one of his many trips to the Hampton area of VA. He wrote:

"I finally stole enough of a day to get out and do some wandering. I took off down Mercury Blvd, in Hampton, Virginia in search of Fort Monroe. It was a typical Tidewater Virginia day; hot and humid. At the end of Mercury Blvd, I came to an Army Guard post that admitted me into the fort itself. Needless to say the fort has expanded out since the original fort was built. I drove slowly down Ingalls Road which was lined with old brick buildings and residences of the fort inhabitants. The place was absolutely spotless with tall stately trees that were indeed ancient. There were Crepe Myrtle trees that were absolutely covered with red dainty blossoms that just filled the air with their fragrance. At the end of Ingalls Road, I came to the Main Sallyport which gave entrance to the "Fortress" itself. The bridge that spanned the moat surrounding the fort and the actual entrance is barely wide enough for just one car at a time.

The "Fortress" itself is the largest moat encircled, masonry fortification in America. Its construction was begun in 1814 and completed in 1834. The designer of the fort was the distinguished military engineer, General Simon Bernard of Dole, France, a former aide to Napoleon Bonaparte.

A historical side note: from 1831 to 1834, the finishing touches to the fort were supervised by a young 1st Lieutenant named Robert E. Lee. His residence during that time period is still standing and is actually the current residence of another young army 1st Lieutenant. Some things just don't change, do they?

The encircled portion of Fort Monroe covers about 63 acres with all sides constructed of marooned stone which housed the casements for the guns with more circular mount emplacements along the top. It's seven fronts with the junctions of each front having 4 sided bastions constructed such that the field of cannon fire from the bastions would cover each wall with crossfire, leaving no approach to the fort uncovered. Fort Monroe played prominently throughout the Civil War and was in Union hands throughout that period.

As I entered the Sallyport and turned left, I drove about 2 blocks and came to the Casemate Museum. The museum has restored a number of the artillery casemates and the cell that Jefferson Davis was imprisoned after Lincoln's death. Davis was kept in the casemate cell from 22 May 1865 to 2 Oct 1865 when he was relocated to Carroll Hall within the fort for his health. He was released in May 1867. On display outside the museum were restorations of 12-pounder Howitzer Guns, 14-pounder James Rifle, Austrian 6-pounder and a Spanish 8-inch Siege Mortar. The parapets on top still have the semicircular tracks where the upper Artillery guns were mounted. It's a great tour just to walk through these restored casemates with exhibits of 24 pound Carronades and the soldiers manning them. They have examples of living quarters and various Naval Uniforms. A real treat are the complete rosters of the Monitor and the Merrimac. I met and talked with the full-time museum staff, Ann Marie Wyatt Rogers, Mary Kay Makin and David Johnson. They were full of stories and thoughts about Fort Monroe and especially the Casemate Museum. You will enjoy them.

There are walking tours both inside and outside the fort that are well marked. The inside route can be covered comfortably in about 60 minutes including the outside portion, will likely run on to two hours. I didn't even come close to making that as I have to stop and smell flowers, read everything, and then just sit down and soak up a place. Highlights on the walking tour inside the fort are the Centurian Chapel, the Lincoln Gun, and Quarters Number One.

The Centurian Chapel was dedicate in 1858 and was named after the Roman Centurian Cornelius, the first gentile converted to Christianity. As I wandered through this chapel, the stained glass windows were mostly dedicated to "Warriors" who had made their mark in Artillery in the various wars. Three that caught my eye were Brevet Brigadier General C. H. Morgan, 4th Artillery, 1875; Gettysburg. Bristoe Station, Wilderness, Spotsylvania and North Anna; Col. J. McAllister; and finally an eye-catching one called the "Taps Window". This window was dedicated to the origins of TAPS. During the Pennsylvania Campaign in 1862, the Bugle Call "Lights Out" borrowed from the French was modified to the call we now know as TAPS by General Daniel Butterfield while encamped at Harrison's Landing on the James River. It was first used at the funeral of a deceased soldier of the Batter A, 2nd Artillery. The two officers in charge of the funeral, Captains Tyndall and Butterfield, decided to use TAPS. They were both based at Fort Monroe. You have heard me share various stories about the origins of TAPS, but this is the most accepted and documented.

The Lincoln Gun is the first 14 inch Rodman Gun ever built in 1860 and later named after Abraham Lincoln. It was used at Fort Monroe to bombard the Confederates over on Sewell's Point across the James River. A picture of it, mounted and trained on the ship channel, may be found in the 5 July 1982 publication of Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. Quarters Number One is still standing. A three story structure with full length covered porches on all three floors is the oldest residence on post. Distinguished visitors to this residence have been Abraham Lincoln and the Marquis de Lafayette.

This is a MUST visit especially for those interested in the Naval history of the Civil War. You'll have a great time visiting with the staff and viewing a one of a kind facility. Web Sites are http://www.army.mil."

My name is David Watson. Harlan Gause was my gg-grandfather. I have these 
clippings from a Wilmington Newspaper from the turn of the last century 
concerning his unit and some of his experiences. He apparently had noted that 
many persons who fought in the war were publishing their accounts and he 
wanted to add his to the mix. I was hoping that your organization might have 
a picture of him with his regiment. I  have photos of him post war and also 
late in life. He died in 1923. I also have S. Canby's (wooden) civil war "dog 
tag". I just found that one in a drawer recently. Canby was his (HG's) brother 
in law. I don't know if Canby survived the war or what unit he fought with. 

A History of the Military Life of Harlan Gause

Harlan Gause was mustered into the United States Volunteers on Sept 5, 1862 
as Captain of Company I, 4th Delaware Volunteers. The authority to raise 
this Regiment was granted by the Secretary of War to Col. A.H. Grimshaw, who 
commenced to recruit the Regiment early in 1862. This was on the account of 
the difficulty that Col. Grimshaw had in obtaining the requisite authority 
from the Democratic Governor of the State of Delaware, and Col. Grimshaw, by 
virtue of the authority ?reposed in him by the Secretary of War, appointed 
the officers of the 4th Delaware Regiment, and Captain Gause received in due 
time his commission from Governor Cannon.

He was present in all the engagements in which his Regiment participated, 
from the time of his muster September 5, 1862 until his final discharge on 
June 3rd, 1865, except when absent from sickness or on leave.

The many engagements and services participated in by the Regiment were the 
following at which Captain Gause was present:
    The 4th Regiment Delaware Volunteers was placed in the defenses of 
Washington D.C. about November of 1862. It was from thence sent to 
Glouchester Point, Va., during the Christmas Holidays, and joined the command 
of Major-General E.D. Keys. The Regiment was in the Campaign against 
Richmond, Va., and on the peninsula above Yorktown from early in June 1863, 
at which time dispatches from Washington recalled the Regiment to Yorktown. 
From this point the Regiment was sent to Washington, D.C. with the view of 
protecting the capitol, and from thence to Fairfax C.H., Va., on outpost duty 
of the same character, during the Fall and Winter of 1863, and until the 
Spring of 1864. In May of 1864, the Regiment was ordered to join the Army of 
the Potomac, and took the transports at Alexandria, Va., and proceeded to a 
point on the Rappahannock River, from whence it marched and joined the Army 
of the Potomac in time to participate in the battle of Bethesda Church, Va., 
on June 2 and 3, 1864. In this engagement, Lieutenant Richard H. Webb of 
his company was killed. 

The Regiment was in the battle at Cold Harbor on the ensuing two days, 
and on the evening of the fifth of June, having maintained its position on 
the extreme right of the army, was withdrawn and marched to a position on the 
Chickahominy River. After continuous service in the front, of some two weeks, 
the Regiment, with the Army of the Potomac was withdrawn from its position on 
the North side of the James River, and transferred by transports to the 
neighborhood of City Point with the rest of the army. 

On the evening of June 16th and during the 17th of June, 1864, it was engaged 
with the enemy before Petersburg, Va., and on the 18th of June, advanced in 
conjunction with the other Regiments of the 2nd Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th 
Army Corps, and after capturing two lines of fortifications, at about three 
o'clock in the afternoon, made an assault upon the three lines of the 
enemy's entrenchments, upon which occasion the Union forces were repulsed 
with a heavy loss of men in killed and wounded. The Regiment then occupied 
the trenches in front of Petersburg, during the memorable siege of the city, 
from the time the assault was made until the 30th of July 1864, at which time 
the enemy's fortifications, a little to the right of the regimental front, 
were blown up by a mine, which had been constructed from the Federal lines in 
front of the 9th Corps to the enemy's works. Having been under fire for 
upwards of six weeks, the Regiment was relieved and retired to a point in the 
rear of the Federal forces.

Captain Gause was with his Regiment when the 5th Army Corps moved out to the 
left of the Army on the 18th of August, 1864, and captured the Weldon 
Railroad, and participated in the engagements which for three days followed 
its capture.

In September of 1864, the Regiment was in the engagement at Preebles Farm in 
front of Petersburg, and in October of 1864 was detailed to attack and 
destroy the W.W. Davis house, which was located within the enemy's picket 
lines, and infested with rebel sharpshooter. 

The Regiment was so much reduced in strength at this time, that but about one 
hundred and twenty (120) men, excluding the Color Company, composed the 
entire Regiment present for duty, many of the companies not having more than 
ten men present for duty. This was a very exposed service, the Regiment 
losing heavily in proportion to the numbers engaged.

It arose from an offer on the part of a 2nd. Lieutenant on the Brigade Staff, 
offering to lead a detail of one hundred (100) men from the Regiment to 
perform the service. At the time the detail, it was found that the entire 
Regiment, after moving back the Color Company, would be required to make up 
the requisite number. Captain Kent, who was the senior office commanding the 
Regiment, declined to permit it to proceed upon this dangerous work under the 
command of the 2nd. Lieutenant, and demanded that he be accorded the right to 
lead the Regiment himself, which was granted. Captain Gause, Captain Smith 
and Captain Sloshenburg, and the officers of the detail whose companies were 
taken in the detail, all protested against there commands being led by an 
officer inferior in rank to themselves, and demanded to be permitted to lead 
their own companies, which was acceded to, and the assault was make with this 
small detail, and at least eight officers, with their respective commands 
ranking the 2nd Lieutenant, detailed at Brigade Headquarters to lead the 
charge. The charge was successful, and the house taken and burned to the 
ground. The loss was heavy, and it is said that there is no other instance 
recorded in the service during the war, where the entire regimental officers 
were brevetted for a service of this character. 

Captain Gause was present with his Regiment during the battle of Boynton 
Plank Road, March 1865, and at the battle of White Oak Road, March 30, 1865, 
both before Petersburg, Va., at the latter engagement, he was disabled by a 
spent musket-ball striking him on the ankle.

He also took part in the battle of Five Forks, Va., on March 31, 1865, acting 
in the capacity of Assistant-Adjutant-General on the staff of Brigadier 
General James Gwynn, who commanded the 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 5th Army 

He was present later at the surrender of the Rebel Army, under General Lee at 
Appomattox Court House, Va., the flag of truce being carried in, directly in 
front of his Division.

Captain Gause was appointed by the President, Brevet Major of United States 
Volunteers, on April 20, 1865, to rank as such form July 6, 1864.

He was also appointed by the President, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel of United 
States Volunteers, on June 15”, 1865, to rank as such from April 1” 1865.

He was also commissioned by the State authorities, Major of the 4th Regiment 
Delaware Volunteers, form June 14, 1865.

Captain Gause was honorable discharged on June 3rd, 1865. at Arlington 
Heights, Virginia, by reason of the expiration of his term of service.

An Old Soldier Tells of an Incident in the White House During the Civil War

Colonel Harlan Gause writes the following interesting story of Abraham 

Since reading the articles written by some of our townsmen, of their 
recollections of Abraham Lincoln, they recall very vividly to my mind a 
remarkable scene at the White House during the Civil War. Dr. Linton Smith 
and I went to Washington on a two day leave of absence from the army in March 

Our Regiment, the Fourth Delaware, was stationed in the region of Fairfax 
Court House in Va. We arrived in Washington during the forenoon and learning 
that President Lincoln would hold a public reception that evening, we 
concluded to attend. We went to the White House about 9 o'clock were we found 
a large throng of persons in the east room, passing before the President. 

We got into line and just after shaking hands with the President, we noticed 
quite a commotion in the upper end of the room. We learned that General Grant 
and General Rawlings, his chief of staff, had just come in to pay their 
respects to Mr. Lincoln. General Grant had arrived in Washington that morning 
and had received his commission as Lieutenant-General of the Army, from the 
President in the White House, in the presence of cabinet officers and his own 

Upon hearing of General Grant's arrival Mr. Lincoln immediately stopped 
receiving and went forward to the centre of the room to greet General Grant, 
who was surrounded by a great crowd, which had commenced cheering as soon as 
he entered the room. The President shook both Generals by the hand and seemed 
to be overflowing with happiness, welcoming Grant very cordially, and finally 
asking him to stand on a large chair, were all could get a better view of 
him. But Grant, being as we all know, a very bashful man, remained there for 
only a few minutes. Many pressed forward and shook hands with him.

When I first saw Mr. Lincoln after entering the room I was struck by his sad 
careworn appearance, to see the change that come over his countenance as soon 
as he learned that General Grant had entered the room, indicating the joy and 
relief which he felt in finding finally a general in whom he could place 
entire confidence in regard to his ability to lead the armies of the United 
States to final victory.

Harlan Gause died in 1923 at age 81 in Wilmington, DE

The following Offline Reading Suggestions were sent to us by Edward Harding <ehardinghsd@earthlink.net>

I enjoyed your website and thought I'd pass along the titles of a few books
that might be of interest to your readers.

 1)  An Honorable Defeat: The Last Days of the Confederate Government, by William C. Davis

 2)  More Terrible than Victory: North Carolina's Bloody Bethel Regiment 1861-1865,  by Craig S. Chapman

 3)  When Sherman Came, Southern Women and the Great March, by Katherine M. Jones

 4)  Memoirs of Colonel John S. Mosby, by Colonel John S. Mosby

 5)  The South was Right, by James Ronald Kennedy & Walter Donald Kennedy

 6)  The Civil War - Strange and Fascinating Facts, by Burke Davis

 7)  Civil War Medicine: Care & Comfort of the Wounded, by Robert E. Denney

 8)  The Confederate Navy - A Pictorial History, by Philip van Doren Stern

 9)  Black Southerners in Gray: Essays on Afro-Americans in Confederate Armies, edited by Richard Rollins

10)  The Men of Secession and Civil War 1859-1861, by James L. Abrahamson

These are a few very good books that teach more than just the PC books which are available.
Some give a much more in depth look at the causes of the War and things that happened during the War.
I signed your guest book earlier and I commend you for an outstanding website. 

Best regards,

Edward Harding
Washington, North Carolina

My sincere thanks to Steven G. Schenk for sharing the following two stories with us all.  It is stories like these that keep the memories alive and help educate our young people.  

Mrs. Rawlin's Petticoats
by Steven G. Schenk

My Civil War ancestor was Samuel B Davis, originally from Norfolk, Virginia, where he enlisted in the Confederate army on 15 April 1861.  He was later captured and sent to a prisoner of war camp in New Jersey.

Back in Norfolk there was a doctor by the name of Rawlins.  His wife, Martha Rawlins, was a good friend of Sam's mother and his aunt, Mahala Conrad.  Dr. Rawlins traveled north to visit the POW camp in Jersey to check on the condition of the prisoners there.  Mrs. Rawlins accompanied her husband to the camp, where she secretely removed her petticoats and had them passed around the camp.  The Virginians from the Norfolk area wrote messages on the petticoats to their families back home.  One of those soldiers was Sam Davis, who wrote to his Aunt Mahala in Norfolk.

Mrs. Rawlins put the petticoats back on and passed unsearched through the line and back to Norfolk, where she cut the petticoats up and had all the messages delivered to the families who were eager to hear from their men in prison in the North.

I still have that old frayed piece of Matyja Rawlin's petticoat with Sam's message on it, still legible.

Mary Lincoln's Hats
by Steven G. Schenk

My grandmother's great Aunt Ginny (Virginia Shaw) worked in a very elegant hat shop across Lafayette Square from the White House.  It was run by a French lady who made the best hats in Washington, and all the finest ladies in the city bought their hats there.

Aunt Ginny was interviewed in the Philadelphia paper years later (I have the article), and told of Mary Lincoln often coming into the shop, and chattering away for hours at a time with the owner of the shop, as well as the shop girls.  Aunt Ginny was very impressed that such a Great Lady as the President's wife would talk to all the girls in such a friendly manner, and also that she never seemed to have anything of any importance to say.  It was all chit-chat, frivolous gossip, and silly "Girl Talk," and Mrs. Lincoln went on and on and on.

She loved bright colors and flashy feathers, beads and lace.  Her personal taste bordered on being "too much."

She met other ladies there who came into the shop, and talked with them for awhile until they left, and then went back to talking to the shop staff.

Aunt Ginny described what Washington was like in the days after Lincoln was shot.  All the shops were closed, and their windows were hung with black mourning bunting, with pictures of Lincoln placed in the window, with flowers.  The streets were empty, and nobody was out or about at all.

I remember I was a teenager (15) when Kennedy was shot in 1963.  I lived in Arlington, Virginia, across the river from Washington.  At that time, Pennsylvania Avenue had not yet been rebuilt, and was still lined with the old store fronts that had been there in Aunt Ginny's time.  They were all new and fashionable in her day, but by my day, they had become run down and shabby and old fashioned.

I went into town on my bike the next day (Saturday), and rode straight down the middle of an empty Pennsylvania Avenue. There was no traffic, no cars, no people - just a somber dark late November hush over the whole city, which seemed empty.

All the shops were closed, every window was draped in black bunting, and pictures of Kennedy were reverently placed in the windows, with flowers - exactly as Aunty Ginny had seen those same windows on that same street a hundred years earlier.

It was a very strange moment for me, and I will never forget it (after all, I am over 50 now, and I am writing you about it...)  I thought of Aunt Ginny walking that same street, looking at those same windows, decorated the same way, but a century had passed, and the face was different.  Everything else was the same.

During the next few days and weeks, Mary Lincoln sent all of her hats back to the shop to be transformed into mourning Black.  They were stripped of any color, the fabric was all dyed black, and so were the feathers (black).  Mrs. Lincoln did not spend any more time in the shop after that.

When I was young, my grandmother still had an old trunk that had many scraps and end pieced of beautifully colored silks and intricate brocades ~ pieces and samples and ends of cloth and lace and braiding and beadwork in intricate patterns.  They were the leftovers from Mary Lincoln's hats, before Abraham was shot.

My thanks to BrieSkate/Dana for sharing the following with us.  She tells me the William Jared written about was the son of Joel and Polly Dowell Jared.  William is a brother to Dana's ggrandfather.   She believes the lady who wrote the piece was the granddaughter of William Jared.  Mr. Jared fought for the 153rd Illinois.

by Grace Heminger Jared

William Jared, son of Joel and Mary (Dowell) Jared was born 3 Jan. 1821, in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, on a farm on Sinking Creek, not far from Abraham Lincoln's birthplace. When William was 24 years old, on Nov. 27, 1845, he married Susan Robinson, 18 year old daughter of Allen and Lucy (Lucinda) (Dowell) Robinson.

In the year of 1848, William and his brother Israel--13 years his senior--grew restless. They heard rumors of the fertile land in Illinois and longed to try the new frontier. Joel and wife Mary, together with Joel's brother Thomas, a widower, and some of Thomas' children joined the caravan.

William, Israel, and Joel owned several teams of horses, which must have given them quite an advantage.

It was a dull day in November when they reached Yale, Jasper County, Illinois. Thomas and his band pushed on toward the better land of Edgar County. Joel and his descendants paid the government a small percent per acre for their land, paying the rest by homestead rights, and settled near Yale.

On a hill overlooking Painer Creek, William felled the trees and built his crude log cabin. He filled the cracks with mud. The furniture was two three-legged stolls, a rough table, a built-in bed with hickory bark for springs, a corn shuck mattress, feather beds for covering, a trundle bed underneath the big bed for the children. There was a loft above, reached by a ladder, and here in that one room and loft, which served as a kitchen, dining room, living room, and bedroom, a family of 13 children were born.

A school was built near by. It was named the Jared school for its teacher Israel, William Jared's older brother.

On 18 Jan. 1860, identical triplet sons were born to William and Susan. They lived but a day. Then came the election of Abraham Lincoln and the great Civil War. The months lengthened into years and the conflict raged on. in the heart of William Jared another battle raged. There were nine children now, Lewis, the oldest was 15 years old. The soil was not very productive. Would his wife and 15 year old Lewis be able to keep the wolf from the door?

Near the end of the summer of 1862, his country's need forced a decision. Fighting for country became synonymous with pritecting his family, so on August 14, 1862, William Jared enlisted. He served as a corporal in the 123rd Illinois Infantry in Company E under Cpl. James Monroe. On 6 September he was sent to Camp Terry at Mattoon, Illinois. Here, in 13 days he received all the military training he had ever had. On 19 September his regiment was loaded into freight cars and transported to Louisville, Kentucky, where they were at once put to work under Gen. Nelson to fortify the city against Bragg, who was then advancing on it in pursuit of Buell. Eleven days of this strenous labor and then they started marching southward through Kentucky after Bragg, who had turned back. On 8 October, nineteen days after leaving Mattoon, the regiment engaged in the battle of Perryville. The untrained troops of 123rd Illinois Infantry were at the mercy of the enemy. Their loss was terrible. Corporal Willam Jared was badly wounded in his right leg. He was sent to the military hospital at Louisville, Kentucky. The days lengthened into weeks--weeks into months while Corporal William Jared fought for his life.

The phsyical suffering battle with the fear and worry about his family. They were suffering the privations and hardships of war. It is said at that time the children had nothing but cornbread and green apples to eat. The corporal did not improve. When spring approached, he realized that his wife needed him as a new baby was expected. The government would not give him a furlough. They considered him not sufficiently improved to be discharged from hospital treatment.

Finally his nurse came to the rescue. Together they laid their plans. Dressed in the civilian clothes which the nurse was able to smuggle in, he would leave the hospital without detection. He would go home to be with his wife during her coming event, then return to the hospital. About 28 Feb. 1865, he crept out of the hospital disguised in his borrowed suit, and boarded the train for Olney, Illinois. He was a ghost of the strong, hearty man, who six months before had kissed his family goodbye. He reached Olney on 2nd March. The rest of the way had to be made on foot. It was 28 miles to Yale. When he reached home and Susan laid his 5 weeks old son Joel in his arms, for a few days at least they were happy.

But death followed birth in the little log cabin, for a week later Corporal William Jared, age 42, was dead. The long trip had caused blood poisoning and death came quickly. His war record kept by his faithful nurse, gives Louisville, Kentucky as the place of his death, March 9, 1863. Susan Robinson Jared was left a widow at 35 years of age with 10 children, the youngest but six weeks old.

Sorrow followed Susanna four months later when wee Joel the war baby died. in 1864 Quincy Adams was laid beside his father. At 70 years the hair of this valiant woman was hardly touched with grey, and her remarkable refinement was still evident.


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