by Ted Fisher

The initial Union response to Southern secession was adoption of Winfield Scott's Anaconda Plan, which called for a blockade of all Southern ports from the Tex-Mex border to the Mason Dixon line. Initially, this was a paper blockade since the Union had only 45 ships and had lost more than 1/3 of her officer corps to the South. Gideon Welles, Federal Secretary of the Navy embarked on a vast ship- building program to strengthen the blockade at the expense of all other Federal ship- building activities. By 1865, a blockading fleet of 1500 Federal ships virtually strangled the Confederacy and turned a torrent of blockade runners into a trickle.

Simultaneously, Confederate Secretary of the Navy Floridian and former Senator Stephen Mallory faced an almost insurmountable problem in trying to build a Confederate Navy from scratch. While the South had lumber, she had neither the technical expertise nor the excess iron production to support a naval program. The few iron production mills such as Tredegar in Richmond were dedicated to meeting the needs of the Confederate army. Mallory therefore geared his naval policies toward the following four strategies (only the last of which was really effective) in order to defeat the blockade:

1. Domestic construction of ironclads - The success of this strategy was limited in size and scope especially after the Federals recaptured the only Southern deepwater shipyard at Norfolk after it produced one ironclad - the CSS Virginia (Merrimack)

2. The commissioning of Privateers under Letters of Marque and Reprisal. This strategy had limited success until the blockaders became more numerous and faster than the Privateers.

3. Purchase or seizure of any vessel that could carry a gun- this program resulted in a total of 10 ships for the deep-water Confederate navy.

4. Purchase abroad of high seas raiders to pray on Federal commerce and thereby forcing the Union to weaken it's blockade in order to protect same worldwide.

The implementation of strategy 4 required a Naval Purchasing Agent with integrity and experience both as a captain and shipbuilder. Few of the many available naval officers who went South had the necessary qualifications. James Dunwoody Bulloch did and this is his story.


Bulloch had distinguished Scottish ancestors, one of whom settled in South Carolina in 1729. Great Grandfather Archibald was an ardent patriot who died in 1777. His father James Stephens Bulloch was one of a group who backed the steamship Savannah in the first Atlantic crossing by a ship powered by steam. James Dunwoody Bulloch was born June 25, 1823 and was the only child of his father's first marriage to Esther Elliot in 1817. Little is known of Esther except that Dunwoody was her mother's maiden name and used as a middle name for her son. James Stephens remarried in 1832 to Martha Stewart and had 3 children - Anna, Martha - who was to marry Theodore Roosevelt Senior and Irvine who was to sail on the raiders Nashville, Alabama and Shenandoah.

In 1839 at age 16, James Dunwoody Bulloch was appointed Midshipman aboard the frigate United States. At sea, a Midshipman's duties were often varied and menial. He had to awaken the various officers for their watch tours and perform any other duty the captain or lieutenants ordered. Apart from such tasks, the trainees learned about ship's rigging, the tides, currents and prevailing winds. He also learned Mathematics, Astronomy, Artillery Management and Navigation from a tutor who was aboard to teach the Midshipmen. His sleeping quarters were small and cramped. All in all, the Midshipman's life was hard. He could only sleep in small snatches, he was always at the beck and call of the officers and his mess was the same as the enlisted sailors. In 1844, after 5 years at sea, Bulloch was assigned to the Philadelphia Naval School where Midshipmen were given intensive courses on the subjects they practiced at sea. At the end, all Midshipmen were required to pass an Examining Officer's Board oral exam. Bulloch graduated 2nd in his class and commissioned a Passed Midshipman.

As the navy had more officers then it could use at one time, officers were subject to frequent unpaid extended leaves, between tours of duty at sea. They frequently had to have second careers in order to support themselves, not to mention a family. Raphael Semmes studied and practiced marine law after passing the bar exam. Bulloch, like John McIntosh Kell and many other Southern naval officers would return home to help operate the family's land holdings during these leaves.

Bulloch served on numerous ships up to 1849 when he succeeded David Dixon Porter (a future adversary) to the command of the steamer USS Georgia, which was subsidized by the US government to carry mail to and from California. Bulloch married Elizabeth Euphemia of Richmond. Within 2 years, Bulloch resigned from government service to pursue a career working in N.Y. private shipping. Perhaps having a young wife alone during Bulloch's tours of duty played a part in his resignation, but the marriage soon ended. In 1857, Bulloch remarried a widow Harriet Cross who subsequently bore him 5 children. He was financially successful in New York, both as a captain and as a builder of several ships. Additionally, his half sister Martha lived in New York and Bulloch frequently visited, bounced her son Teddy (future President Theodore Roosevelt) on his knee
and was referred to as Uncle Jimmie until he "went South".

At the outbreak of the war, Bullock was in command of the mail steamer Beinville which sailed the circuit between New York, Havana and New Orleans. The Bienville was berthed in New Orleans when word of the firing upon Fort Sumpter arrived. Bulloch immediately offered his services to the Confederate government but insisted that he was honor-bound to the Bienville owners to return the ship to New York. Local New Orleans officials pressed Bulloch to sell the vessel. When he refused, they threatened to seize it. Louisiana Governor Brown requested instructions from President Davis and was told " Do not detain the Bienville, we do not wish to interfere in any way with private property".

Upon arrival in New York, Bulloch found a message from Confederate Attorney General Judah P Benjamin asking him to come to Montgomery Alabama ( the original Confederate Capitol) without delay.

On May 8, 1861 Bulloch was interviewed by Stephen Mallory who asked if he would go to England as a Naval Purchasing Agent. Mallory was impressed with the following Bulloch qualifications which few other naval officers had:
1. He had business training and knew the commercial trade.
2. He was an expert in naval affairs and had served on every class of war vessel from 10 gun schooner to 80 gun ship of the line.
3. He had a clear understanding of international law.
4. He had supervised the construction of two of the ships he later commanded which gave him the ability to readily distinguish a good ship from a bad one.

Bulloch preferred to command a ship and accepted the post of Naval Procurement Agent in England on the condition that he would receive command of one of the first cruisers built. Mallory later reneged on this promise, insisting that no other person could be entrusted with the work that Bulloch was performing.

On May 9th, Bulloch was informed that he was to leave at once for England where he was to purchase or build 6 steam propeller vessels with a budget of 1 million dollars. He was also informed that his financial backers would be cotton merchants Fraser, Trenholm and Co of Liverpool who had a branch office in Charleston, South Carolina. Bulloch departed that evening and taking advantage to the fact that the borders were not yet sealed, traveled to Louisville, Detroit, crossed Lake Erie and reached Montreal by rail where he took passage on the steamer North America which reached Liverpool on June 3, 1861.

Bulloch's arrival in Liverpool initiated what was to be the greatest clandestine operation of the 19th century. During the war, at least 12 Confederate agents in civilian clothes operated out of Liverpool, utilizing Fraser, Trenholm and Co. as their home base.

To thwart their efforts to get ships, guns and supplies for the Confederacy , Federal Ambassador Charles Adams had a bevy of spies who roamed throughout England searching for Confederate sources of supply. These spies would report improprieties through intermediates to Adams who would berate the British Foreign Office for their failure to enforce England's neutrality laws. In fact, the British government went out of it's way to circumvent them, for the following reasons:
1. The Federal blockade stopped Southern cotton shipments which resulted in the closure of Lancastrian cotton mills putting 500,000 out of work.
2. The Confederates paid in gold for supplies and ship building and created jobs for the unemployed in shipyards and on ships.
3. Confederate cruisers would help England enlarge it's maritime commerce, by destroying the maritime commerce of it's closest competitor- the United States. In the 10 years prior to the war, worldwide trade had increased 30% and 70% of that was carried in American bottoms because American vessels were faster, manned more efficiently and carried cargo more cheaply. Without British assistance, raiders could not have been built. Raiders destroyed 235 Union ships totaling 110,000 tons and frightened ship owners sold another 800,000 tons to foreign owners. As a result, half of the American merchant fleet disappeared during the Civil War and American commerce did not recover for the next 80 years.

Within 3 days after his arrival in Liverpool on June 3, 1861 Bulloch had checked in with the Confederate financial agents and contracted with William C. Miller and Sons of Liverpool to build the first cruiser. Miller was a former Royal Navy man who used a scale drawing of a British dispatch gunboat, to build the Florida. Fawcett Preston and Co. a Liverpool engineering firm supplied the engines. All cruisers were to be built of wood for easy repairs anywhere in the world. They were to be steamers with retractable screws and have masts and sails to circumvent any inability to restock coal for the steam engines. Armament was to be a broadside of 64-pounders and a rifled cannon in the bow.

Building of the Florida commenced in June 1861, with the rumor being spread that she was an Italian ship. She was officially the property of John Henry Thomas, the local agent of an Italian firm. Named the Oreto, the vessel began to take shape. She was a 700 ton steamer, bark rigged with 3 masts, 4 gun ports and 2 smokestacks. Her rigging was increased to improve her sailing qualities and her hull extended to carry extra coal and supplies.

Bulloch's activities in Liverpool had not gone unnoticed by Union spies who were giving regular updates on both Bulloch and the Oreto to Thomas Dudley, U.S. Consul. Dudley reported to Charles Adams, the U.S. Ambassador in London that "There is much secrecy about the Oreto, but my impressions are strong that she is intended for the Southern Confederacy." He also reported that "no pains or expense have been spared in her construction, and when fully armed she will be a formidable and dangerous craft." So disturbed was Adams that he complained to the British Foreign Office that the building of the Oreto was a violation of British neutrality. To placate Adams, the Oreto was inspected by Her Majesties Customs who found not a single item on the Oreto that could be described as equipment of war. Additionally they found that Bulloch had the foresight to register her with the Board of Trade, as an English vessel with an English Master and crew and with the required marking on her side. As customs could find no reason to detain her, the Oreto was free to sail unmolested out of Liverpool. Her arms were shipped to Nassau on another steamer-the Bahama.

On March 22, 1862 Oreto shipped her cables and headed to sea with ladies aboard to make Dudley's agents think she was on a trial run. The ladies were put ashore and English Confederate John Low announced that the ship's destination was not Palermo, but Nassau in the Bahamas where she would be handed over to John Newland Maffit C.S.N. A rendezvous with the steamer Bahama and her guns, ammunition and military supplies were transferred. The Oreto was commissioned the Florida and she embarked on a career which resulted in the destruction of 46 Yankee ships.

By July 27, 1861 funds were available for a second ship and Bulloch contracted with the shipbuilding firm of John Laird for her construction. This ship was to be an all-new wood design capable of sustaining itself independent of foreign ports. Extra space was allotted for stores, provisions, repair parts and tools. Iron bunkers stored 350 tons of coal, enough for 12 days steaming. Special condensing apparatuses on the boilers supplied fresh water daily. She was to be of 1040 tons displacement, and 220 feet long with a 32 foot beam and be bark rigged, with long lower masts to provide oversized fore and aft sails, all wire rigging and a retractable screw to eliminate drag when under sail. Her armament plans called for a 7" 100 pound rifled Blakely gun, an 8" smoothbore 68-pounder and 6- 6" 32-pounders broadside. Bulloch agreed to pay Lairds L47,500 in five installments of L9,500 each. Lairds laid keel 290 which was to become to raider Alabama.

Dudley responded by hiring British detective Matthew McGuire and soon the dockyards of Liverpool swarmed with Union spies buying information from seamen and workers employed by Laird. McGuire even managed to slip aboard the 290 and provide Dudley with a report describing the interior. British customs agents maintained a regular vigil over the ships progress and finding nothing illegal, 290 slid down the blocks on May 15, 1862 with a new name- the Enrica. Immediately she was moved to the graving dock where a derrick inserted her engines and boilers. By June 15, she weighed anchor her first trial run.

Dudley was not fooled, but he had no proof that any British law had been broken and Bulloch intended to keep it that way. To comply with Britain's Foreign Enlistment Act, the Enrica could not be armed in Britain's territorial waters; she would have to rendezvous with a tender far at sea. Through an agent, Bulloch bought the Agrippina foe L1,400 and moved her to the London docks to load guns, ordinance, clothing, stores and 350 tons of coal. While spies prowled Liverpool, the Agrippina attracted no unusual attention in London. Bulloch now needed a crew. As a British vessel, the Enrica required a captain holding a Board of Trade certificate. Bulloch selected Matthew J. Butcher to command the ship and authorized him to enlist a crew for a voyage to the West Indies.

On Saturday July 26, 1862 Bulloch received word that it would not be safe to leave the Enrica in Liverpool another 48 hours (In fact, the papers had been issued for her seizure). He hurried to the Laird office and requested a thorough, all day trial outside the harbor, then instructed Captain Butcher to be ready to sail with Monday's tide.

On Monday morning July 28, the Enrica left the dock and anchored off Seacombe. As was his style, Bulloch invited a small party of ladies and gentlemen to enjoy the trial trip. The next morning, escorted by the tug Hercules, the Enrica headed for sea. The party uncorked bumpers of Champaign and enjoyed an elegant luncheon, with Bulloch and his wife as the perfect host and hostess, followed by music and dancing. Late in the afternoon Bulloch apologetically asked his guests to return to shore on the Hercules as it seemed necessary to keep the ship out all night to complete her trials. Leaving instructions with Captain Butcher to meet him the following day at Moelfra Bay off Wales, Bulloch departed with his party.

As Bulloch stepped off the Hercules, Bulloch asked her captain to meet him the following morning at Woodside Landing on the Mersey, where he had arranged for a Shipping Master to recruit 30 or 40 seamen for an Enrica voyage to Havana. Bulloch returned to Liverpool where he re-chartered the Bahama ostensibly for a trip to Nassau but actually to transport himself, Raphael Semmes, his officers and additional crew for a rendezvous with the Enrica and Agrippina in the Azores. On August 20, the Bahama steamed into the remote harbor of Terceira, Azores joining Enrica and Agrippina. Captain Butcher had already lashed the ships together and begun transferring the heavy guns.

Bulloch coordinated every detail, supervising the placement of the guns, gun carriages and supplies that he had meticulously planned and laboriously acquired. As his final act, Bulloch witnessed Semmes' commissioning ceremony, and watched proudly as the Confederate flag unfurled at the peak. Gone forever was the Enrica. In her stead stood the new and powerful C.S.S. Alabama. Bulloch then departed with Captain Butcher on the Bahama bound for Liverpool. Semmes and the Alabama were to sink 58 Yankee ships over the next 2 years.

It is worth noting here that Stephen Mallory had promised Bulloch command of the Alabama after the Florida went to sea and Bulloch had lavished a parent's care on the Alabama since it was to be his ship. In the interim, Bulloch had opened negotiations with the Lairds for the construction of two ironclad rams intended to destroy the Union blockade. Mallory considered this project crucial and felt Bulloch too valuable in his present post to send him to sea.

During the building of the Florida and Alabama, Bulloch felt that his constant personal supervision of the work was neither necessary nor advisable because it would draw the suspicion of Northern spies. Experience made him aware of the many problems relative to the projects he had to carry out. First of all the question of finances, and this required a full review with Mallory.

In returning to the Confederacy for this conference, Bulloch wanted to seize the occasion to bring with him a ship loaded with war supplies. On September 2, 1861 along with Confederate Army Agent Edward G Anderson, Bulloch decided to share the costs of buying a vessel to transport arms, munitions and supplies to the Confederacy. By September 11, Bulloch had secured the Fingal, an iron hulled screw steamer to run the blockade. Clandestine measures were taken to obscure the Fingal's true ownership, mission and cargo. The cargo to be boarded had a value of $250,000, much of it supplied by Majors North and House of the Confederate Army who were also acting as agents in England. The Fingal was loaded with 11,000 Enfield rifles, pistols, swords, sabers, ammunition, 4 cannon, 7 tons of shell, leather, medicines, clothing, blankets and more.

Bulloch appointed British Confederate John Low captain and the Fingal sailed on October 11, 1861 reaching Bermuda on November 2. There she took on Savannah pilot Mr. Macon, fresh from the raider CSS Nashville. Only upon leaving Bermuda on November 7th was the British crew notified of their destination, and they agreed to defend the ship against blockaders. Using a thick fog. the Fingal crept toward her destination. As the fog lifted, she made a dash to Savannah and arrived there on November 17th. The Fingal's arrival gave her the distinction of having brought into the Confederacy the largest single-trip delivery of the war composed entirely of naval and military supplies.

Bulloch departed for Richmond for a long conference with Mallory, where future plans were formulated. Reloaded with Confederate cotton, the Fengal made several unsuccessful attempts to leave for England. Eventually she was converted into an ironclad and renamed the CSS Atlanta. Bulloch and Low returned to England aboard the blockade runner Annie Childs, arriving in Liverpool on March 10, 1862.
Bulloch immediately embarked in Mallory's new naval strategy- To build ironclads in foreign shipyards to break the blockade. He signed a contract with the Lairds on July 4, 1862 to build 2 ironclad rams of 1896 tons displacement, 235 feet in length, 42 foot beam, and a full load draft of 17.6 feet so as to be able to enter Southern ports. The armor, to begin 3.5 feet under the waterline was to be 4.5" decreasing to 2" at the bow and stern and to be backed by teak bulkheads 9" thick. The 350 horsepower engines would provide a speed of 15.5 knots. The twin screws were to operate independently, thus permitting the ship to turn very tightly. Cost for the two ironclads (nicknamed the Laird Rams) was L93,750. The first to be ready in March 1863 and the second in May 1863. Each ship was to have 2 turrets fitted with 9" rifled Blakely's. Additionally each ship was to be fitted with 70 lb 5.5" Whitworths in the bow and stern.

Union agents continued to be a major problem with Gustavus Fox reporting to Charles Adams that the U.S. Navy had neither ships or guns capable of countering the ironclads, therefore checking their completion by the Confederates would become for the Union, a matter of life or death.

Besides worrying about what the British government might do, Bulloch had other problems. First was funds, since the Confederacy was running out of foreign exchange credit. This was solved by issuing cotton bonds for the sale of Southern cotton to English cotton manufacturers at .08 cents a pound payable after the war. With an accumulation of 417,000 bales of cotton this was worth $ 16 million. The second problem Bulloch had to face came from one of Mallory's worst mistakes- signing contracts for the building of ships with private speculators. To get financing credit, they boasted that they had the backing of the Confederate government, thus shattering the secrecy Bulloch believed was indispensable for success.

As work on the Laird ironclads proceeded, Bulloch had serious concern that the British government might obstruct their delivery, bypassing the law with an order in council. He therefore suggested shifting new ship orders from British to French shipyards. Confederate Commissioner to France John Slidell discussed the possibility with Emperor Napoleon III who was favorable to the idea. Three days later, Slidell was contacted by the leading French shipbuilder who manifested a desire to build ships for the South. Slidell immediately informed Bulloch who had no money. All available funds were being used for the construction of the Laird ironclads in Liverpool and one ironclad and one raider in Glasgow, Scotland by speculators. Slidell was able to solve the financial problem through the firm of Erlanger and Co., whose director's son was engaged to Slidell's daughter. Erlanger proposed that the Confederacy float a large loan based on cotton bonds in the major European financial markets. This would be done with drastic interest to the determent of the Confederacy.

Bulloch visited the Arman shipyards in Bordeaux and asked questions about the French neutrality law. Receiving satisfactory answers, he thereupon signed a contract for four fast cruisers. In the interim, much to Bulloch's relief, General Colin McRae was appointed financial agent for Europe with the duty of Consolidating the administration of Confederate funds abroad., with those of the Erlinger loan his first priority. He arrived in Paris and immediately took over all financial issues.

Even with the Erlinger Loan, the South still had problems. At Richmond, Mallory was distressed by the difficulty of raising the $5,200,000 appropriated by the congress for building ironclads in France. When news of the appropriation reached Bulloch, he immediately left Paris for Bordeaux where he signed a contract for two ironclads on July 16, 1863.

Up until the victory at Chancellorsville, the fruits of the European shipbuilding program looked bright. Thereafter with the defeats of Gettysburg and Vicksburg the reverse was true.

Great Britain at the Union Ambassadors urging decided to re-evaluate it's existing neutrality laws. Bulloch tried to save the Laird Rams by selling them to a French trading house. The pretense used was that the French were going to resell them to the Khedive of Egypt and the ships were given Egyptian names- El Tousson and El Munassir. Actually, the ships upon completion were to be sailed to France, met with Confederate crews and resold to the Confederacy.

Adams thwarted the effort by contacting Egyptian authorities who knew nothing about the ships. He brought this to the attention of Lord Russell in a letter stressing that " one of the ironclads is about to leave....it would be superfluous in me to point out to your lordship that this means war". Russell had the Liverpool customs agents stop delivery of the ironclads pending proceedings to ascertain their legal status. A week later a detachment of Royal Marines were sent aboard and the ships were seized, The British government offered to buy the ships for the Royal Navy at a reduced price and the Confederacy had no choice but to lose them. On October 26, 1863 the ironclads passed into British hands and simultaneously the cruiser and ironclad being built on the Clyde were seized and disposed of. The Clyde ironclad (called the Scottish monster) was sold to Denmark. Thus ended the dream and hope of the South putting afloat a formidable battle fleet built in Great Britain. Bulloch's genius, ability and exertions had failed to save it.

Hope still remained for the fleet being built in France, until the plot was uncovered by an informer at the office of the U.S. Ambassador in Paris. He offered documentary proof that the vessels being built in the French shipyards were for the Confederate Navy. Ambassador Dayton went to see French Foreign Minister Edouard Drouyn de Lhuys and disclosed that the two ironclads purportedly being built for Egypt and called Cheops and Sphinx were being constructed for the Confederate navy. Drouyn de Lhuys feigned indignation, then began to argue. In the end Emperor Napoleon III retreating from his previous stance ordered the ships sold to some neutral. It was a fierce blow, and Bulloch , for awhile gave way to despair. Then he recovered and began to seek any possible way of getting his hands on the ships. He would in the end succeed in obtaining the French Ironclad sold to Denmark. Named the CSS Stonewall, she arrived in American waters after Lee's surrender.

Bulloch had not given up. He had decided that if it was no longer possible to build ships for the Confederacy in France or Great Britain, he would buy them. For some time he had eyed a fast steamer named the Sea King built in Glasgow for the Indian Ocean trade. She was of 1160 tons displacement, had 850 horsepower engines, was covered with teak wood and capable of running like a swallow. Bulloch succeeded in acquiring the ship in late 1864 for L15,000 through a British agent named Richard Wright who provided him cover. The ship went to sea on October 8, 1864. Union spies were always vigilant, but on this occasion they did not guess that Wright was really acting for Bulloch.

Hard on the heels of the future cruiser came the transport Laurel carrying officers, part of the crew, ordinance ( 4- 8" cannons and 2 - 32 pound Whitworths), small arms, uniforms, food supplies and coal.

On October 18, Laurel joined the cruiser, now re-christened CSS Shenandoah at Medeira. The transfer of weapons and supplies completed, the ship was put in commission and Lieutenant James Iredell Waddell, CSN assumed command and hoisted the flag. The Shenandoah went on to sunk 33 ships and was in the Aleutians when word was received from a British whaler that the Confederacy was no more. She was sailed back to England where the Confederate flag was lowered in November 1865 and was the last Confederate military unit in the Civil War to surrender.

In October 1864, Bulloch was contacted by French shipbuilder Arman regarding whether he still wanted the ironclad Sphinx. After Napoleon III's order to dispose of the Confederate ships Arman had sold the 2 French built ironclads to 2 belligerent countries- Prussia and Denmark who under neutrality laws could not acquire them. With completion of the Prussian/ Danish war in 1864, the Sphinx was sent to Denmark who no longer wanted her. Bulloch bought the ship and under the command of Captain Thomas Jefferson Page with a Danish captain and the cover name Olinda she sailed from Copenhagen for a meeting with the blockade runner City of Richmond to onload a crew (mostly former sailors from the Florida) and supplies. The ship was commissioned CSS Stonewall and pulled into a Spanish port for repairs and coal. Proving to be a poor sailor, the Stonewall reached Nassau Bahamas on May 6, 1865 where news of the Southern surrender was received. Her arrival put the northern East coast into a panic, but Page subsequently sailed her to Cuba, and turned the ship over to Spanish authorities for $16,000 with which to pay off the crew.

In mid 1864, Mallory requested Bulloch's assistance in having a dozen assault (torpedo) boats and their boilers built as soon as possible and shipped either fitted out or dismantled. Bulloch undertook the task with his usual vigor, yet he had so many requests to satisfy that his work on the boats lagged behind. Only on January 26, 1865 when the South was near defeat could he write that 6 boats were ready and that he would try to ship them. In addition, throughout the war Bulloch also had a hand in dispatching 33 blockade runners with needed supplies for the Confederacy.

Following the war, neither Bulloch nor his half- brother Irvine who sailed on the cruisers Nashville, Alabama and Shenandoah were offered Amnesty. In fact, he was the one Confederate naval officer that the U.S. would have put on trial. Therefore James Dunwoody Bulloch was to remain in Liverpool the rest of his life operating a successful merchant business. He was listed in contemporary Liverpool directories through the remainder of his life. The census of April 2, 1871 lists Bulloch's household at 5 Cambridge road Waterloo as follows:
James D. Bulloch head 47 yrs, merchant American trade b. U.S.( British subject. naturalized)
Harriet C. Bulloch, wife, 40 yrs b. U.S.
Stuart E. Bulloch, son, 8 yrs, scholar b. Lancaster, Waterloo
Martha Bulloch, daughter, 6 yrs, scholar b. Lancaster, Waterloo
Jane Howland servant, 26 yrs cook domestic b Wales
Ellen Tetley servant, 20 yrs waitress, domestic b Shropshire
Agnas McCormick servant, 20 yrs housemaid b Scotland

James Dunwoody Bulloch one of the great unsung heroes of the Confederacy died on January 9, 1901 and was interred in Toxteth Park Cemetery Liverpool. The family plot includes Harriet and 3 of his children-Henry Dunwoody Bulloch d Feb 1, 1871, James Dunwoody Bulloch Jr d Aug 31, 1888 and Martha who died in 1947. The plot also contains Bulloch's half - brother Irvine.

James Sr and Irvine's graves were decorated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1968 and grave markers placed on January 7, 2001, the 100th anniversary of James Dunwoody Bulloch's death.

1. James Dunwoody Bulloch search in Google.

2. "Gray Raiders of the Sea" by Chester G. Hearn, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, copyright 1992 International Marine Publish. Tab Books div of McGraw Hill, Inc.

3. "A History of the Confederate Navy" by Raimondo Luraghi, translated by Paolo E. Colleta. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD 1996. First published in Italian as "Marinal del Sud: Storia della Marina confederata nella Guerra Civile Americana, 1861-1865" by Rizzoli in 1993

4. "Raphael Semmes The Philosophical Mariner" by Warren F. Spencer, copyright 1997, The University of Alabama Press.

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